Gerhard They do provide some tools to prepare refunds to the merchant, but nowhere does it say that these tools always have the correct information already pre-filled, and they mention at two places that you can only do a refund if you have the "necessary" bank data ("Wenn Sie ein Konto in Deutschland sowie alle für eine Rückbuchung erforderlichen Bankdaten besitzen, können für Transaktionen im SEPA-Raum mit der Währung EURO Rückbuchungen ausgeführt werden.")
My interpretation from that is that they give the merchants some bank data, but that this is not necessarily the "necessary" data that they say is needed for refunds. Because you can also see in the API documentation that IBAN and BIC for a refund can be manually changed by the merchant.
But without knowing what kind of deal exactly bunq and Klarna have made here, it's hard to know who is at fault. It could (and should) definitely made a lot clearer to merchants that the sender IBAN might be random if that is how Klarna envisions their product. Or, if the sender IBAN should always be the actual IBAN of the sender's bank account, well then of course bunq's implementation is just straight up wrong. (But I cannot really imagine Klarna letting bunq just do this.)
So yeah, whoever's fault it may be: bunq's, Klarna's or the respective merchant's. The current situation is bad for the consumer (and for no reason).